Agriculture is as important to the global economy as it is to our species’ survival. Agriculture maintains food supply, aids in poverty reduction by spurring economic and industrial expansion, and minimizes income inequities. Food security is a vital priority for any nation, especially during times of economic crisis or instability. The trade interruptions created by the emergence of COVID-19 raised the prices of numerous agricultural commodities, emphasizing the significance of agriculture self-sufficiency for many countries.
Wheat is a significant grain crop. The total cultivated area of wheat has surpassed 220 million hectares worldwide. Wheat is grown in both developed and developing countries, with developed regions accounting for 50% of total global wheat output and 53% of total harvested land. Wheat accounts for more than 35% of cereal calories consumed in underdeveloped regions, compared to 74% in developed regions. Around 70% of the wheat produced globally is used for food, 20% for livestock, and 2-3% for industrial purposes.
The COVID-19 pandemic also had an impact on the wheat industry. Panic buying was initially observed around the world as a result of several worries, including supply chain challenges and anticipation of industries not being able to run continuously during the epidemic. However, considering the importance of agriculture to global survival, governments around the world allowed it to operate even during widespread lockdowns.
Wheat demand is increasing as the world’s population grows and is expected to rise further in the future years. The wheat market was valued at $127.7 billion in 2021 and is expected to grow to $169.1 billion by 2027. Although factors such as increased awareness of gluten allergies and sensitivities, as well as unpredictable weather conditions in several parts of the world, are expected to hamper growth during the forecast period, increased consumption of wheat in cuisines across countries, as well as increased demand by the processing industries for products such as flour, pasta, noodles, and beverages, are expected to drive the market in the coming years. Additionally, you can also read about- Largest Milk Producing Countries in The World 2023
China, India, Pakistan, and Australia are among the world’s major wheat producers in the Asia Pacific region. China and India are the world’s major wheat producers and consumers, respectively. Wheat is a key staple food in this region, therefore demand and consumption have increased. Deere & Company (NYSE:DE), Archer-Daniels-Midland Company (NYSE:ADM), Bunge Limited (NYSE:BG), and Seaboard Corporation (NYSE:SEB) are among the leading corporations active in wheat production and marketing.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 138 million Metric Tons
With a population of over 1.4 billion people, the People’s Republic of China is the world’s most populous country. Rice, wheat, and maize are China’s principal crops, accounting for more than 90% of total food output. In China, approximately 80% of food production is for human consumption, while the remaining 20% is for animal feed. China is predicted to produce 138 million metric tons of wheat in 2022, making it the world’s greatest wheat producer.
2. European Union
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 134.7 million Metric Tons
The European Union is a political and economic union of 27 European countries. Summer crops include sunflowers, rice, potatoes, sugarbeets, and soybeans, while winter crops include wheat, rye, and rapeseed. In 2022, the EU is expected to produce 134.7 million metric tons of wheat.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 103 million Metric Tons
India is the world’s second most populated country. India is the world’s greatest producer of milk, jute, and pulses. It is also a top producer of wheat, rice, sugarcane, groundnuts, vegetables, cotton, and fruit. In 2022, total wheat production in India is expected to be 103 million metric tons.
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Annual Wheat Production(2022): 91 million Metric Tons
Russia has the world’s greatest land area, with approximately 17,098,242 km2. Wheat is Russia’s most exported crop, followed by barley, oats, sunflower seed, potatoes, and rye. Russia’s grain exports are expected to total 56.1 million tonnes in 2022-2023, including 43.7 million tonnes of wheat. In 2022, Russia is expected to produce 91 million metric tons of wheat.
5. United States
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 44.9 million Metric Tons
The United States is made up of 50 states. Corn is the most important crop in terms of total production, and the majority of it is grown in a region known as the corn belt. Cotton, rice, soybeans, wheat, sugar, pulses, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other crops are grown in the United States. Wheat exports in the United States fell to $771 million in October 2022, down from $1,024 million in September 2022. The United States is expected to produce 44.9 million metric tons of wheat in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 35.00 million Metric Tons
Canada is the world’s second-largest country in terms of land area. Canada’s main crops include wheat, barley, canola, soybeans, and corn. Rye, oats, mixed grains, and white beans are also grown in Canada. Wheat exports benefited from a bumper harvest. Despite a fourth consecutive month of dropping prices, the country’s exports climbed by 1.3% in volume in September 2022. Wheat production in Canada is predicted to reach 35.00 million metric tons in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 33.0 million Metric Tons
Wheat, barley, canola, sorghum, cotton, and sunflowers are among Australia’s most important agricultural products. Australia’s wheat exports are estimated to be 27 million tonnes in 2022-2023, somewhat lower than the 28 million tonnes reported in 2021-2022. Total wheat production in the country is expected to reach 33.0 million metric tons in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 26.4 million Metric Tons
Pakistan is the world’s fifth most populous country and one of the top 10 wheat-producing countries. Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, dates, mangoes, and oranges are among the agricultural products grown in the country. In 2022, Pakistan is expected to produce 26.4 million metric tons of wheat.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 20.5 million Metric Tons
Ukraine is located in Eastern Europe and is Europe’s second largest country after Russia. Ukraine’s top agricultural commodities are wheat, corn, barley, soybeans, sugar beet, potatoes, tomatoes, sunflower seeds, and others. Ukraine’s grain exports for 2022-23 have been reduced by 32% as a result of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, to 16.2 million tonnes, which includes 6.3 million tonnes of wheat, 8.6 million tonnes of corn, and 1.3 million tonnes of barley. Ukraine is expected to produce 20.5 million metric tons of wheat in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 17.5 million Metric Tons
Argentina is located in South America’s southern portion. Argentina is the world’s eighth largest country, with a land area of 2.7 million km2. Argentina is a major producer of soybeans, wheat, and maize, which account for 82% of total crop area. Due to the country’s third straight year of drought, wheat exports are expected to fall 57% year on year to 7 million tonnes in 2022-2023. In 2022, Argentina is expected to produce 17.5 million metric tons of wheat.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 17.25 million Metric Tons
Turkey is a transcontinental country that occupies most of Western Asia’s Anatolian Peninsula and a small portion of Southeast Europe’s Balkan Peninsula. Wheat, sugar beets, cotton, milk, poultry, tomatoes, and other fruits and vegetables are key exports from the country. Turkey is also a major producer of apricots and hazelnuts worldwide. Turkey’s wheat imports are expected to rise to 10.25 million tonnes in 2022-2023, up from 9.4 million tonnes in 2021-2022. In 2022, Turkey is expected to produce 17.25 million metric tons of wheat.
12. United Kingdom
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 14.6 million Metric Tons
The United Kingdom is in northernwestern Europe. Wheat, barley, and oats are the three most important crops in the United Kingdom. Wheat exports climbed by £16 million between August 2021 and August 2022. In 2022, the United Kingdom is expected to produce 14.6 million metric tons of wheat.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 13.2 million Metric Tons
Wheat, barley, and rice are among Iran’s most important crops. Iran imported a record 8 million tons of wheat in the preceding year to March 2022, as drought impeded domestic wheat output. Iran’s wheat output in 2022 is expected to reach 13.2 million metric tons.
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Annual Wheat Production(2022): 13 million Metric Tons
Kazakhstan is a country in Central Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea to the Altai Mountains on its eastern border with Russia and China. It is Central Asia’s top grain producer, capable of exporting about half of its total grain output each year. Wheat is the most important crop in terms of agricultural acreage, accounting for 80% of total grain production. Cotton, sunflower seeds, barley, and rice are among important crops in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is expected to produce 13 million metric tons of wheat in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 9.8 million Metric Tons
Egypt is a country that connects North Africa with the Middle East. Egypt is primarily desert, with only 2.8% of its land suitable for agriculture. The Nile Delta is home to the majority of the country’s agricultural territory, with wheat, fruits, and beans being the main crops. Wheat is an Egyptian staple grain, and consumption of wheat has been increasing in recent years due to the country’s growing population. Wheat consumption in Egypt reached 20.5 million metric tons in 2021-2022. Egypt is expected to produce 9.8 million metric tons of wheat in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 9.2 million Metric Tons
Brazil, the largest country in South America, ranks 16th on our list of the wheat-producing countries. Sugar, coffee, soybeans, manioc, maize, rice, cotton, wheat, and edible beans are the country’s principal agricultural products. Brazil is one of the world’s major milk producers, with annual milk sales estimated at 7.2 billion liters in 2021. Brazil is one of the world’s top wheat importers, with domestic consumption exceeding 12 million metric tons per year. In 2022, Brazil is expected to produce 9.2 million metric tons of wheat.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 6.6 million Metric Tons
Uzbekistan is the world’s 17th largest wheat producer. Uzbekistan is famous for its mausoleums, mosques, and other sites associated with the ancient Silk Road. Rice, which is farmed in extensively irrigated oases, is the country’s main cereal crop, along with wheat, barley, corn, and other grains. Sesame, flax, onions, and tobacco are minor crops. Uzbekistan’s fresh fruits are mostly consumed locally, while dried fruits are exported. Uzbekistan is expected to produce 6.6 million metric tons of wheat in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 5.7 million Metric Tons
The Great Rift Valley divides Ethiopia, which is a landlocked country. The country has a long history, with archeological discoveries reaching back 3 million years. It is Africa’s second largest producer of corn. Pulses, coffee, grains, oilseeds, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables are among the principal crops grown in the country. Ethiopia’s primary exports are agricultural products, with coffee accounting for the majority of foreign exchange earnings. Ethiopia became the world’s 39th largest wheat importer in 2020, importing $320 million in wheat. Ethiopian wheat production is expected to reach 5.7 million metric tons in 2022.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 4.5 million Metric Tons
Afghanistan is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. Wheat is Afghanistan’s most important crop, followed by barley, rice, and cotton. The majority of cereal products produced in Afghanistan are consumed locally. In 2022, Afghanistan is expected to produce 4.5 million metric tons of wheat.
Annual Wheat Production(2022): 3.7 million Metric Tons
Algeria is a North African country on the Mediterranean coast. Wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, grapes, citrus fruit, dates, and figs are the country’s principal crops. Algeria also grows olive oil, tobacco, and palm trees on 72,000 hectares of land. Algeria is also a major cereal importer, with wheat and flour imports expected to reach 7.7 million metric tons in 2021. Cereal product imports fell from 2017 to 2020 but surged in 2021. Algeria is expected to produce 3.7 million metric tons of wheat in 2022.